Wood work methodology is the key factor to do any job, without understanding methodology we cannot deliver the product with best quality.

General: Doors provide entry and exit to the building, whereas the windows provide entry of light and air into the building and ventilators allow escape of used up hot air out of the room or building. The location and size of the various openings is so provided, that the function of each is fully served. Beside the doors, windows and ventilators become a part of the furniture of the building and add to the aesthetics and decor of the building. These openings have to be strong enough to deter any intrusion by outsiders. It should be kept in mind that space leading to the door and room space in front of the door has to be kept vacant and eats into usable space of the building, it is therefore prudent to provide the number of doors which are necessary, many doors in a room should be avoided as far as possible.


Doors: The location of door is at the floor level of the room/building. The height and width of the door has to be such that a normal person passes through it, without any inconvenience. Considering the height of a man to be under 1800 mm and girth under 1100 mm, height of a door 1850 mm and width 500mm would be adequate. However depending on the use of the room/building for some specific purpose, which may require passage of more than one person at a time or person entering the door with luggage on one’s head, the width and height are varied. Passage of 2 persons at the same time would require a width of 1100 mm. Similarly, a person with head load may require a clearance of 2100 mm. However, in doors of wider openings, more than one leaf doors are provided. The main entry to the building would normally require passage of furniture etc. into or out of the building and require consideration. Waiting halls, main entry of railway station buildings, access to the F.O.Bs (Foot Over Bridges) are some locations where doors need more vertical opening.

The normal size of door openings adopted is as under:

S.No.

Usage Type

Width

Height

Remark

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

1            a.

Residential      : Main entry into a block

1200

2100

Double leaf

1            b.

: Exterior doors

900

2000

1            c.

– do-

1100

2000

Double leaf door

1 d.

: Internal doors

900

2000

1 e.

-do-

800

2000

1            f.

: Bath and Toilet

700

1900

A loft can be provided above

2 a.

Service            : Main Entry Door

1500

2100

Non-modular, can be as per requirement

2 b.

Door     : Used for Public Room

1100

2000

Double leaf

2 c.   

: Toilets and Baths

700

1900

2 d.   

: Other rooms

900

2000

Note: The above sizes are for modular construction of doors and are sizes of shutters as per I.S. Code. The gross opening in masonry has to be worked out adding the thickness of door frames and subtracting the depth of rebates.


Door Frames: The door frames are made from hard wood like Teak or any other similar wood. Section of the member for door frames should be minimum 100×65 mm for internal door and for exterior doors it should be minimum 125×65 mm. Many times Wire mesh doors are also to be fixed to the doors, especially the exterior doors, then the member for the door should be 25 mm extra i.e. 125×65 or 150×65. The vertical members of the frame are called ‘Jamb’ and the horizontal member at the top is called ‘Head’. The Jambs should be long enough to be buried in the flooring thickness, below the final floor level, by minimum 40mm and the Head is extended by 75 mm on either side of the jambs, called ‘Horns’.


Making a door Frame:

The wood piece should be free from knots, blemishes, warps or bends. All the members i.e. jambs and heads should be of same species of timber and similar grain and texture. The wood should be seasoned and dry.

The door frame has two nos. `T’ joints connecting the `Head’ and the `Jambs’. These are jointed with through Mortise and Tenon joints. First determine the size of the members required and cutting length of members including the length of horns and the part to be buried in the floor.Wood Work Methodology

The detailed procedure for making a frame is given in para 6.0 of Chapter 4. The rebates and any chamfers if required, are to be made prior to starting the M&T joint. The rebate shall be 15 mm deep and width, equal to the thickness of door shutter. If wire mesh door also is required, frame shall have rebates on both sides of the members. The main door should open inside the room and the wire mesh door outside. The joints should be perfect and not require any wedges or fillers to tighten the M&T, the glue should be adequate to make the joint tight.

The Mortise and Tenon are to be put together duly pasted with adhesive (Poly vinyl Acetate (Heavy Duty) – Fevicol or similar commercial product).

Check the diagonals, the angle at the joints and the horizontal spacing between jambs at the top, at middle and at the bottom. The frame should be true and square. If not make necessary adjustment.

The frame is temporarily supported at the bottom, at the middle height and at the two angles at top by means of wooden struts and braces, to keep them in shape and prevent any distortion during storage or while fixing in place.

The face of the wood members coming in contact with masonry or plaster and the portion buried in floor as well as the horns are given 2 coats of approved Anti-termite solution. One coat of primer is given to the whole frame, before storage.

The frames should be stored in lying down position with the struts and braces facing upward. Next frame can be stacked above it but the head of one should lie on the bottom of another, to avoid any disturbance to the struts and braces.

Fixing the Frame:  The door frames can be fixed in the masonry either while raising the masonry or after completion of masonry works in wall. The method of fixing is primarily same in both cases, except that while raising the masonry, no gap is required to be kept between frame and brick work for variation of dimension etc. and the hold fast is cast inWood Work Methodology 1:3:6 concrete along with raising of masonry. In the case where frame is fixed after wall has been erected, a gap of about 15 mm is left on all sides viz. both sides and top while raising masonry and the brick work at the location of hold fasts is left for 2 courses of bricks and filled with brick bats. The loose bricks are taken out and hold fasts are embedded in concrete 1:3:6. The gap between the sides and top of frame are filled up with mortar plaster after fixing the frame.


Procedure for fixing the frame:

Three no. hold fasts are to be fixed on each of the outer face of the jambs, two nos. at 300mm from the top and bottom and third at the middle. The hold fasts are made from a 40×5 mm M.S. flat, 350 mm long. On one end the flat is split and forked at the center for a length of 100 mm and bent on opposite sides at 90 degrees. On the other end, the flat is bent at 50 mm upwards at 90 degrees. The 50 mm side is drilled with 2 holes of 6.5 mm diameter. The hold fasts are fixed using 2 screws of No.14 screws, and 50 mm long. Pilot holes of 3.6 mm diameter should be drilled prior to screwing.

Transfer the level at which the frame is to be fixed, from the main entry gate, by means of water level tube.

Temporarily fix the frame at proper level, checking the plumb from inner and outer faces. It is to be ensured that the door opening side is marked and the frame fixed accordingly. The frame has to be flush with the outside of wall and therefore, it is necessary that the frame is aligned, out wards by the thickness of plaster, which the masonry is to receive. This is 12 mm, normally.

The door frame is then fixed by casting the hold fasts in concrete of 1:3:6. The dimension of concrete is 300 x thickness of wall x 150.

If there is a concrete column on one side, where the door frame is to be fixed, the horn on that side has to be cut and instead of the hold fast, a M.S. flat of 250x40x5 mm, 50 mm of which is bent at 90 degrees is fixed to frame and the concrete column by means of 50 mm long No. 6 screws, 2 nos. in wood and 2 nos. in concrete. In concrete holes have to be drilled of 4 mm diameter and Plumbers nails 6mm diameter and 50 mm long can be driven or screws of No.6 fixed. Care is to be taken that 12mm projection of door frame is kept on outside to accommodate the plaster thickness.


Normally the door frame is provided with a wooden beading, after plastering work is completed at the joint of masonry with jambs to hide the gap created at this location.

Door Shutters: There are several types of door shutters known after the type of material used and their construction. Mainly these are,
a)            Flush doors
b)            Panel doors
c)            Glazed doors
d)            Wire Mesh door
e)            Batten doors (Ledge door)
f)          GI sheet door 2.2.1 Flush Doors: Flush doors are made in different materials.
a)            Ply Board Flush door
b)            Particle Board Flush door
c)            Batten frame flush door
d)            PVC flush door
e)            MDF board flush door
Flush doors: The flush doors are very popular these days, especially for interior use because of simple construction, which can be done by an average skilled carpenter, less cost and good appearance. Flush door shutters have a solid or semi-solid core set in a framework of wooden stiles(verticals) and rails(horizontals), which is covered on both sides with either plywood or a face veneers giving a perfectly flush and joint less surface. Readymade flush doors are also available in the market of different sizes, however they can be made also from the basic material. This works out a little cheaper and many of the builders prefer to make flush doors rather than purchasing ready built doors. The flush door shutters normally available in market are as below:
Width mm
Leg nth mm
1829
1930
1981
2057
2133
660
A
A
A
A
N.A.
685
A
A
A
A
N.A.
762
A
A
A
A
N.A.
787
A
A
A
A
A
914
A
A
A
A
A
965
A
A
A
A
A
1067
A
A
A
A
A
1118
A
A
A
A
A
Note A — Available, N.A. — Not Available


Flush doors can be made from, Ply Board, Block Board, Particle Board, MDF board, or soft wood battens covered with veneer on both sides. They could also be part hollow by the use of battens spaced with gap etc. A teak wood lipping is provided to all sides of flush doors. Flush doors undergo little expansion or contraction with seasonal changes because they use various boards manufactured under workshop conditions.
Flush doors are being molded or manufactured in PVC also. The PVC doors are very light, water proof but are not as strong as wooden doors. Therefore they are generally preferred for use in bathrooms, office cabins, and such places.
Normal thickness of the flush door is 25, 30 or 35mm. Shutter of 25mm thickness is suitable for opening up to 1.5 sq.m. and above 1.5 sq.m. shutter should be 30mm or more thick.

Making a flush door: (a) With Boards
Select the material from which the door is proposed to be made. The Ply Board and Block board are a stronger material compared to Particle board and MDF, especially as the latter soak water and can become unserviceable where they may come in contact with water. It is always prudent to pick up the size of plywood / Board of appropriate size as per opening of frame to minimize wastage.
Cut the board to required size after deducting the thickness of beading/ lipping. The beading /lipping is normally 12 to 20 mm thick and of width equal to the thickness of door, which is fixed on all the edges of shutter. The lipping/beading is to be provided in a splayed or square cut with bigger dimension towards the rebate of the frame. Many times carpenters fix the lipping without splay or square cut, which can work out by constant banging of the door over a period of time.

Beading I Lipping Patty: 
Check the right angle of all the sides. Confirm that both the diagonals are same in measurement.
Fix the veneer if required with adhesive and headless nails.
Fix Teak Wood beading/lipping Patti on all sides of door shutter, after the veneer has been fixed and dried. Fixing of beading patty should be with using adhesive and nailed with headless panel pins 38 mm long, hammered at closer distance. There should not be any joint or splicing in the beading. The beading/lipping provides protection to the edges of the board provides smooth surface and also reinforces the board to receive hinges.Wood Work Methodology
After fixing the beading Patti, make marking of hinges on the shutter. Make recess for hinge. 4 No. hinges should always be provided in flush doors, because all the boards do not grip the screws with as much strength as hard woods. The depth and size of recess should be just matching the dimensions of hinge. It is necessary that at the upper location 150 mm below the top edge, two no. hinges are provided at a clear distance 100 mm apart. The lower hinge is provided after a clear distance of 150 mm from bottom and the central hinge at the center of the space between the 2nd and bottom hinge

Mark the location of lock rail:  (b) with wooden frameWood Work Methodology
Normally, hollow core flush doors are made using a wooden frame with two stiles and four rails v.i.z. top rail, intermediate rail, lock rail and bottom rail. The dimensions of the upper, Intermediate and bottom rails and stiles is 65×25 mm. normally the lock rail is kept 125×25 mm to receive the lock and AL drop etc. The `T’ and `I’ joints are Mortise and Tenon. The `T’ and ‘L’ joints should be provided with Secret stub Tenon of 20mm. To strengthen the door, 3 to 4 Vertical battens of 40×25 mm are placed at interval of about 200 mm between the two stiles. Alternatively, 2 to 3 rails can be added over and above the 4 rails to divide the height in about 6 spaces with average gap of 300mm. The ‘T’ and ‘X’ joints are provided as lap joints for fixing the battens. 3-4 mm thick ply is cut to exact size and pasted on both sides of the frame with adhesive and nails.
Lipping/ beading patti is fixed on all sides of the door using adhesive and panel pins. Recess for hinges is provided and pilot holes drilled.
The lock rail location is marked.
Paneled Doors:
This is the conventional and most usual variety of door and it consists of a framework in which panels are fitted. These are suitable for all the locations where Flush doors can be fixed. The main entry doors with 2 leaves are very commonly made as panel doors, besides several others.
The panel doors may be single leaf or double leaf. This type of doors minimizes the spoiling of looks and function due to tendency of shrinkage cracks in planks and presents a decent appearance. There can be several designs with 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 panels.Wood Work Methodology
The stiles (75×30 mm) are to be continuous from top to bottom and rails are joined to the stiles. The thickness of shutter is minimum 30mm. The bottom rail should be 200×30 mm, the top rail 125×30 mm and lock rail 150×30 mm. The panels can be wood planks or in Ply board. These days the ply board panels are preferred because of simplicity and less labour.
The thickness of panel is generally kept as 19 mm when in wood, but if ply board is used it can be 10-12 mm thick. The panels are secured in position by grooves housing made inside the edges of the framework. In single leaf doors, it is generally a practice to avoid muntins (Vertical member dividing the width of panels) and provide panels covering the full width of shutter. This simplifies the construction and reduces cost.
The minimum recommended dimensions as per I.S. code, for the various elements of Panel or Glazed shutters are as under,
S.No.
Element
Width (mm)
Thickness (mm)
1
Stiles, Top and Frieze rail
100 + 3
35 + 1
2
Lock rail
150 + 3
35 + 1
3
Bottom rail
200 + 3
35 + 1
4
Muntins
100 + 3
35 + 1
5
Glazing bar
40 + 1
35 + 1
Glazed Doors:
Glazed doors are provided to allow entry of natural light into the room as well as providing a view of outside. The glazed shutters are designed as fully glazed or may be partly glazed as per the requirement. Normally, bottom half, 1 /3rd or 2/3rd height is paneled and balance is glazed. The shutters could be single leaf or double leaf. The glass panes could be in form of tiles or one piece.
The glass is fixed into the rebate of wooden glazing bars, stiles and rails. The glass panes are first fixed with headless nails and a wooden bead is fixed in the rebate. The bead is 6x 10mm or equal to the depth of rebate after subtracting the thickness of glass pane. Sometimes the beads are rounded and project out of plane of the door surface. The glass panes can also be fixed without bead and then putty is applied to the rebate forming a bevel edge with the glass. This arrangement may not look very pleasing but makes the joints almost air tight.

Wire gauge shutters:
Fly proof wire gauge (wire cloth, wire mesh), is regularly woven with equally spaced galvanized mild steel wires or stainless steel wires in both warp and weft directions. Average width of aperture and the nominal diameter of the wire available commercially are as given in table,
Specification of Black Wire Cloth, Plain Weave
Mesh/inch
Wire Dia. mm
Aperture in mm
10 mesh x 10 mesh
0.60mm
1.94mm
16 mesh x 16 mesh
0.45mm
1.138mm
Width: (1m, 3′ and 4′)
Specification of Stainless Steel Wire Mesh
Mesh/Inch
Wire Gauge(SWG)
Aperture in mm
20mesh x 20mesh
30
0.95
30mesh x 30mesh
34
0.61
Roll width: 1 m, 3′ and 4′
Each wire gauge panel shall be a single piece. Panel should be so designed that no single panel exceeds 0.5 sq.m. in area. In order to prevent sagging of wire gauge, 20 x 20mm square or suitable equivalent beading shall be provided on the external face in desired pattern. If panel of the shutter having any opening then beading should be provided from both the side of the wire mesh. The stiles of frame of wire mesh door shutter should have width of 100mm and bottom and top rail must be of minimum 150 mm wide. The thickness of shutter should be minimum 25 mm.Wood Work Methodology
The stiles and rails are given a rebate to receive the wire mesh, which forms the wire mesh panel. Wire mesh shall be bent at right angles in the rebate of the stiles and rails, turned back and fixed tight with tacks at about 75mm centers, fixed alternately in the two faces of the rebates. Ensure that the wires of the mesh are perfectly vertical and horizontal in the line of shutter. The wooden beading or molding is fixed over it with brads or small screws at about 75mm centers. The space between the beading and rebates, where wire mesh is bent, shall be neatly finished with putty, so that end of wire mesh may not be visible.

Battened / ledge Doors:
This is the simplest form of shutter and it is used where appearance is not important. This is mostly used in storage areas, godowns, in the backyard entrance door.Wood Work Methodology
This type of door is formed by vertical members of wooden planks called battens. The horizontal members which secure or hold the battens are known as ledges. The battens are normally 75 mm to 150mm wide and 20mm to 30mm thick but of uniform dimensions. The ledges are generally 150mm wide and 30mm thick. Three ledges are generally provided at top, middle and bottom. The shutter is hung on ‘T’ hinges which are fixed on ledges.Wood Work Methodology
 It is usual to provide diagonal braces between the ledges to strengthen the door shutter for heavy duty use. The appearance of such a door is of double ‘F’. The battens are fixed with each other in a tongue and Groove joint, as shown in fig. The braces are 100-125 mm. The ledges and braces are fixed with wood screws from inside so that the head is not seen from outside. It is important that the braces start from near the hinge and incline upward /downward towards the middle ledge for better strengthening the door. In case all the ledges are provided with ‘T’ hinge, both braces can rise upward, for better looks. For rough work the battens are only lapped and braced without wood joints as mentioned earlier.

G.I. Sheet Doors: This type of shutter is used for compound gates. It is low cost door shutter and used where appearance and strength is not important. A wooden frame is made with suitable section, normally 65×30 mm. The ‘L’ joints could be Miter joints and the middle rail with ‘T’ stub Mortise and Tenon joint. Then G.I. Sheet, 18 Gauge is fixed on the frame from outside. A wooden beading of 25×12 mm is fixed from the outside with screws, to hide the nails and strengthen the connection. The M.S. black hinges are provided, minimum 3 in no. with the frame and middle rail is used for locking arrangement. The whole door is painted by oil paint after fixing.Wood Work Methodology

Procedure for fixing door shutters:
Step 1: The shutters are to be fixed after finishing of floor tile work, plaster work, curing etc. so that there are no chances of damage of door shutter and the final floor level is fixed so one can give good clearance between the shutter and the floor.

Step 2: First make marking of hinges on the shutter. Make recess for hinges. Normally this is done along with manufacture of door shutter. For side hung shutters of height 1.2m, each shutter is hung on two butt hinges of size not less than 75mm at quarter points with wood screws No. 8, having length of 30mm. For shutters of height more than 1.2m, each door shutters shall be fixed to the door frame with three butt hinges of size 100mm, one at the center and other two 200mm from the top and the bottom of the shutter. In case of flush doors or other door shutters made of soft wood, 4 hinges should only be provided. It is a good practice to provide 2 hinges close to each other at the top level i.e. at a clear distance of 100 mm from the top hinge which is 150 mm below the top of the door. The side hung doors exert maximum load on the top hinge and since holding power of screws in the boards and soft wood are less than for hard woods, the doors tend to sag down ward. Woodscrews of designation number 9, length 40mm, shall be used for fixing the hinges, which should be screwed with screwdriver and not hammered in.

Step 3: The pilot holes should be drilled after accurately marking the position of hole. The center of the pin of the top hinge should be 5mm beyond the face of the door and that of the bottom hinge should be 6mm beyond the face of the door. The door is fixed a little slanting and any slight sagging which takes place initially is compensated.

Step 4: Fix hinges to the shutter with one screw. Special care should be taken that the screw should be fixed with screw-driver and not to be hammered.
Flap of hinges should be neatly countersunk into the recess cut to the exact dimensions of the flap, in order that the door shall swing freely.

Step 5: After fixing hinges to the door shutter, the door is to be put with the frame. By trying the door in the frame assess the clearance between floor and bottom of door. A beading patti of the thickness of clearance is temporarily kept on the floor for uniform clearance between floor and bottom of the shutter, and the door should be kept on the beading patti and the shutter held in position. Fix all the hinges to the frame with screw.
A clearance of minimum 5mm is kept between the bottom of the door and the finished floor level. The clearance can be kept upto 12mm as per flooring finishing and size of door. Some times, the flooring may not be at uniform level near the door frame, the same should be noted and accounted while deciding the thickness of beading patti.


Step 6: After fixing the shutter to the frame, the work of polishing or painting as decided is done. If the door is to be painted, primer coat should be applied on it. After drying of primer wood putty should be applied, then after drying putty again one coat of primer is to be applied. Then one coat of oil paint should be applied. After drying first coat, second coat of oil paint should be applied. Fittings should be fixed after completion of painting work. The all fittings should be fixed at specified locations as mentioned later in this chapter.

Step 7: After finishing, door should be checked for easy operation and check clearance at bottom. Check the operations of all fittings.

Necessary precautions to be taken while fixing door frames and shutters:
·              Door frames should be in proper plumb & level.
·              Quality of door shutters should be good. Warping of surface i.e. formation of wave pattern on the surface of shutter & broken edges of the shutter should not be allowed to use.
·              Bent shutters, or defects at edges and at corner places should be rejected.
·              All hinges & other door fittings should be fixed only by screws. Hammering of nails should be prohibited.
·              Primer, Putty & first coat of paint/ varnish should be completed before fixing any fittings on shutters.
·              Once the shutter is fixed there should be nominal gap between shutter and frame which is required for working tolerance. There is 5 mm gap maintained on all four sides.
·              Beading should be fitted to sides before fixing the shutter. This hides the gap between wall and the frame.
·              No joints should be provided to cover moulding except for the corners where Miter joints are provided.
·              All visible dents, scratches, unevenness etc. should be properly repaired by applying putty made from wood dust & resin. It should be properly scraped by using proper sand paper.
·              As soon the door shutter is fitted, fix at least one aldorp per shutter for locking, so that shutter will not bang on door frame due to wind.

Windows: The windows while should allow light and air into the room/building should not permit entry of dust, leaves and other litter from the street or the compound inside the building. Further the privacy of the occupants of the building should not be violated i.e. the normal activities in the room/building should not be visible from the street or compound. The height of the window is therefore kept well above the floor level., a height of 1200 mm above the street or compound level is considered sufficient to meet the above requirements. Any thing above 1200 mm may obstruct the entry of air and light as well as view of outside and should not be adopted. Normally the sill level of the windows is kept between 900 mm to 1200mm. The height and width of the window could be provided as per the liking of the occupant and feasibility at site however, the size of modular window shutters as per I.S. code are as under,
S.No.
Width
Height
remark
         1
500 mm
1100 mm
Single leaf
2
460 mm
1100 mm
Single leaf
3
560 mm
100 mm.
Single leaf
4
500 mm
1200 mm
Single leaf
5
900 mm
1200 mm
In double leaf
6
1100 mm
1200 mm
In double leaf
Note: The above sizes are for modular shutters as per I.S.code and the gross opening has to be worked out after adding the thickness of window frame and subtracting the depth of rebates. In case of double leaf shutters, the width of each shutter shall be 460 mm and 560 mm, to obtain the shutter width as 900 mm and 1100 mm in S.No.5 and 6.
In India most of the places have Mosquito menace and therefore, it is prudent to provide Mosquito proof net on all window openings. On the ground floor and other windows, at upper floors opening on to the passages, provision of steel bars or grills is also necessary for safety considerations.
The windows have to be provided considering the layout of building for proper ingress of light and air, as per the good practices for layout of buildings. The minimum window openings in a building should be about 20% of the floor area, of which at least 8% should be with glass panes.

Window Frames: The Window frames are made and fixed in the same manner as the door frames. In window frames the horns are provided both in the ‘Head” as well as “Sill”. Only two hold fasts are required to be fixed as the height of window frame is generally less than a door frame. The members for window frames shall be same as for door frames. In many cases, a M.S. grill or M.S. bars are fixed in window for security reasons. This however does not require additional width of wood member and it is fixed in between the Wire mesh shutters and glazed shutter. The glazed shutter is normally opened towards outside and the wire mesh shutter in side, however many people provide the arrangement in the converse way. This arrangement is also followed where the wire mesh is fixed inside on the frame permanently. Where Wood Work Methodologyhowever only glazed shutter is provided and the wire mesh shutter is not provided, such shutters also open on the outside only. The rebate for the shutters is 15 mm deep and wide equal to the thickness of shutter. The advantage of opening the shutters outside is that the space in the room is not occupied by the opened shutters and normally wherever, the wire mesh shutters are provided will not be required to be opened except for closing or opening of the glazed shutters.

Window shutter: Window shutters are mostly either fully glazed or partly glazed with bottom half or 2/3d paneled. The shutters are made in the same way as paneled or glazed doors.The minimum dimensions of various elements of the window shutters as recommended by I.S. code are as under:
S.No.
Type of Element
Width (mm)
Thickness (mm)
1.    
Stiles and rails
80 + 3
25 + 1
2.    
Muntin
60 + 3
25 +1
3.    
Glazing bar
40 +     1
25 + 1
The Stiles and rails are fixed with Mortise and Tenon joint. The Frieze rail is fixed using `T’ joint details and `Top’ and bottom’ rails are fixed with `L’ joint detail. The Glazing bar is also fixed using Mortise and tenon joints, using `T’ and `X’ details as given in para 7.3 of chapter 4. For glazing bar the practice is to provide the rebate for the glass panes on the outside of the door. The depth of rebate is 12 mm.

Ventilators: Ventilators are essential normally, where either windows can not be provided, or if provided not opened due to extreme weather of winter, summer or other external factors. It is also relevant to consider the height of the ceiling of the room/ building and if the ceiling is high, more than 3600 mm the ventilators in addition to windows will be useful. Many times the ventilators are provided as an extension of 500 mm, to the height of doors or windows. The ventilators should be provided above the lintel level of windows and the minimum dimensions should be 500×500 mm, if provided individually. The modular size of ventilator shutters as per I.S. code, is as under,
S.No.
Width
Height
1.    
500 mm
500 mm
2.    
900 mm
500 mm
3.    
1100 mm
500 mm
The ventilators can be hung to the frame in 3 different ways, Top hung , Bottom hung ,Center hung. In all the 3 types the ventilators open outside. The top hung provide a shade against rain, however opening and closing offer some complication. The bottom opening suffer during rains and water can find way in if not protected by other means, however have convenient way of opening and closing by means of a chord hanging inside the room.Wood Work Methodology Normally the rebates provided are sloping outside, for gravity to assist in opening, by means of a chord tied to the upper edge of the shutter. The center opening are the best and easy for operating as well as rain water also is prevented to enter by half opened height of shutter. A mosquito proof net should be placed to safe guard against mosquitos. Many times one steel bar is also provided horizontally at mid height of the jambs to bar entry of intruders from roof level.
The minimum recommended dimensions of the various elements of a ventilater are as under,
S.No.
Type of Element
Width (mm)
Thickness (mm)
1.    
Stiles and rails
80 + 3
20 + 1
2.    
Muntins
60 + 3
20 + 1
3.    
Glazing bar
40 + 1
20 + 1
These days several types of fancy and toughened /safety glasses are in the market and can be used to have big panes, avoiding the glazing bars as far as possible. Bigger panels give better aesthetics as well as save labour in doing fine work like glazing bars.

Ventilator Fixing the fittings : Standard Recommended heights of fittings:
Normal height of door fittings varies from site to site and as per individuals’ convenience. But there should be certain universal standard to maintain the uniformity. Normally adopted heights and position of various door fixings and tabulated as given below.

Standard Recommended heights of fittings:
Sr. No.
Fitting
Recommended heights from
Finish Floor Level
Position of Fittings Single shutter
Position of fittings Double shutter
 (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Main Door
A
Inside
1
Tower bolt
Top flush to top of shutter
5cm (2″) from
opening edge of shutter
5cm (2″) from opening edge of locking shutter
2
Safety chain
145 cm            (58″)
5cm (2″) from
opening edge of shutter
Not Applicable


(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

3

Eye piece

145 cm            (58″)

At centre of shutter

At centre of Locking shutter

4

Handle

120 cm            (48″)

6.5cm (2.5″) from opening edge of shutter.

6.5cm (2.5″) from opening edge of both the shutters.

5

Night latch

100cm (40″)

Opening edge of shutter

Not Applicable

6

Sliding bolt
(Tadi patti)

85 cm  (34″)

At the opening edge

At the opening edge

7

Rubber stopper (gattu)

7.5cm  (3″)

7.5cm (3″) from opening edge of shutter.

7.5cm (3″) from opening edge of shutter.

B

Outside

1

Unit Number plate

On the head rail of frame.

On the head rail of frame.

2

Name plate

167.5 cm         (67″)

Centre of shutter

Centre of locking shutter

3

Handle

110 cm            (44″)

7.5cm (3″) from opening side edge of shutter

7.5cm (3″) from opening side edge of shutter

4

Aldrop

90 cm  (36″)

5cm (2″) from

opening side edge of shutter

5cm (2″) from opening side edge of shutter

5

Door stopper

As per requirement

7.5 cm (3″) from opening edge

7.5 cm (3″) from opening edge

Fixing the fittings on Doors/Windows/Ventilators


Tower Bolt : The description of different types of tower bolts is given in Chapter 2. The tower bolt along with its catch is positioned on the top of the door or window, such that the tower bolt is flush with the top of the shutter and the catch is holding the bolt for full height as also flush with the bottom of the “head” frame, after the shutter is fully closed. The position of holes in the catch are marked on the frame with pencil. 2.8 mm diameter Pilot holes are drilled and the catch is fixed with No.6 screws, 30 mm long. The bolt is then positioned in the catch and holes location is marked on the shutter by pencil. Pilot holes of 2.8 mm diameter are drilled at the marked locations and bolt is fixed in position by No. 6 wood screws, 25 mm long. Normally two no. tower bolts are fixed per shutter, one at the top and other at the bottom.wood work Methodology image165


Safety Chain: Safety chain is fixed on the inside of main entry door, in case of a flush or single leaf panel door . It is helpful for opening the door slightly to converse with the visitor helping the resident to identify him. It is not a replacement of any of the safety fittings on the door, but an additional precaution. If a eye piece is fixed in the shutter, this may not be required. It is fixed by 2 no. of wood screws 6 no. 25 mm long, on the frame and another 2 no. screws on the shutter.


Aldrop: The aldrop is fixed on the outside at the entry gate, and it has facilities to put a pad lock. The diameter of the bolt in aldrop is 12-15 mm and it is caught in a hole of matching diameter in the jamb. In case it is fixed on double leaf door, a matching catch is to be fixed on one of the shutters. Normally it is fixed by wood screws, 9 No. 30 mm long, but these can be unscrewed from outside and is not very safe arrangement for fixing with wood screws. There are designs available in brass casting aldrops, where the main lugs as well as catch have machined threads and can be fastened from inside also, using metal bolts. With this arrangement, the aldrops will not come off even after unscrewing from outside and are much more safe.


Door Handle: the door handles are available in standard “C” or “D” shape as also in many fancy shapes. General length of the handles is 100mm to 150 mm. and these handles appear very neat as are fixed from inside with machine screws. There are several other types also available and are fixed with wood screws, normally 3 Nos. of 6 no.


Rubber stopper: The rubber stopper or gattu is fixed either on the wall or on the door shutter itself. It prevents the door to hit against the wall and maintain a specified distance from the wall. This is fixed with one wood screw, length depending upon the distance to be kept between wall and shutter. They are available in varied lengths from 50mm to 125 mm.


Mortise Night Lock: A mortise lock is generally, of single spring bolt which can be withdrawn from outside by a key, and from inside by a handle/ knob. This has an arrangement whereby the lock can be prevented from being opened by its key from outside, while the night latch is used inside the room. These are available with two bolts also. This has to be set in the thickness of the door, in the mortise according to the dimensions of the latch. A slot is also created in the frame to catch the bolt.

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