Planning to Define Project Organization and Governance
Every department has a limited number of resources to perform tasks. A Project Manager’s primary role is to find a way to successfully execute a project within these resource constraints. Resource planning is comprised of establishing a team possessing the skills required to perform the work (labor resources), as well as scheduling the tools, equipment and processes (non-labor resources) that enable completion of the project.
Identify the Project Sponsor: The Sponsor acts as the principal decision-making authority regarding the strategic direction of the entire project. The Sponsor also provides executive project oversight and conduct regular decision-making on critical project issues as they pertain to project scope, schedule, budget, methodology, resources, etc.
Identify Required Skill Sets by Role: It is helpful in the planning process to develop a list of skills required, first for execution of the project and then for execution of each task. This skills list may then be used to determine the type of personnel required for the task.
Develop Project Organization; Project organization is used to coordinate the activity of the team and to define the roles and responsibilities of team members. Project organization is needed for every project, and the Project Manager must always be identified.
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The optimal size of the Project Team is driven by three principal factors; the total number of tasks to be performed, the effort needed to perform the tasks, and time frame for the project’s completion.
The larger the project, the more critical the organizational structure becomes. In a small project, a single team member may be responsible for several functions, whereas in a large project, each function might require full-time attention. A very large project, for instance, often requires a deputy Project Manager. A small project might have the senior technical staff member serving as a Project Manager. Definition of the project organization is a critical part of the planning process.
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Confusion and lack of productivity are the result of poor project organization. This is where many projects run into trouble. A good organization facilitates communication and clearly defines roles and responsibilities.
Assign/Acquire Project Team Members: A project needs to establish its pool of available resources. The resource pool typically specifies the type, level (e.g., skill and experience), and time period that the resource is available.
The Project Manager pragmatically assesses the skills of the available people on the project. The Project Manager’s job is to determine the risks associated with the available skills and to build a plan that realistically accounts for those skills. Unfortunately, skill level is not a yes/no factor. People have varying degrees of skill, and the Project Manager needs to determine the level of schedule adjustment that should be made based on the staff skill level. Home Decor
Where staff with the necessary skills is largely unavailable for assignment on the project, the Project Manager has an option to hire the necessary talent or contract services to perform the work.
Backfill Roles for Assigned Team Members (depending on resource requirements)
Update Project Schedule (e.g., load resources)
Create a Resource Plan Document (have it reviewed and gain acceptance)
Identify Other Resource Requirements: All Project Teams require the tools to successfully perform the tasks assigned. In scheduling resources, the Project Manager must ensure that both people and the equipment necessary to support those people are available simultaneously. The Project Manager will:
Determine Facility Needs: The need for adequate workspace is often overlooked when planning a project. If a 15 member Project Team is going to start work, there must be a facility to house the team. Ideally, the team should be placed in contiguous space (co-located) to facilitate interaction and communication. Team spirit and synergy is enhanced and chances for project success are increased when everyone is close together. While this may not always be feasible, it is a goal worth striving toward.
Determine infrastructure, equipment and material needs: In addition to workspace, equipment for the team should be included in the Resource Plan. Ensuring the availability of equipment at critical points in the project is key in planning a successful project. Efficiency and morale are negatively affected by unavailability of equipment needed to perform a task. When considering equipment, it is also important to remember to give each team member the right tools (for example computer software) they need to do the job. Also, it is essential that information exchange and communications tools are provided for Project Team members and project Stakeholders.
Update the Resource Plan Document Home Improvement Tools
Establish Project Life-Cycle Phase Checkpoints: To ensure that the project progresses satisfactorily, management checkpoints or milestones should be clearly defined with planned dates to measure progress. Checkpoints are high-level milestones. Senior management uses them to approve the completion of a phase or milestone and as go/no-go decision points to proceed with the project. The checkpoints ensure that the products and services delivered meet the project objectives in the time frame established by senior management. Project milestones are recorded in the Project Milestones document.
• Phase Exit Criteria are deliverables, approvals or events that must have occurred in each phase before the Project Team is allowed to declare that phase complete.
• Phase Entrance Criteria are materials, personnel, approvals or other matters that must be available before the Project Team can begin the next Phase. The Phase Exit Plan document records this information.