Wood screws and Nails are very important elements of Carpenter’s need. A joint is strengthened by fixing it by fasteners, normally Wood Screws or Nails. The size of the members in any wood work not only depends on the load they are to carry directly but on their ability to join the members together. Joints not only should with stand the load but also remain stable in time and not give a odd appearance. It is therefore necessary to use the right fastener proper for each location, type of work and the requirement of the joint.
While, nail is very simple and easy to install by least skill and equipment required, it has some draw backs also. One of the important draw backs is that they can split the wood through which it is being driven since the action of driving a nail is by splitting it. Another shortcoming is that they can work out with the same ease with which they were driven and with use tend to show play in the joints, with time.
Wood screws are therefore to be preferred in all permanent construction in wood. They give a much rigid joint, there is no danger of splitting the wood, and do not work out easily. All furniture, doors and windows etc are jointed with wood screws only.
Nails: Following are some of the types of nails used by carpenters,
image044Round wire nail: These large round head nails are mostly used for rough carpentry where appearance is not important but strength is essential. They are inclined to split a piece of wood. Sizes from 20- 150 mm (0.75in – 6in).

image046Oval wire nail: Most suitable for joinery work where appearance is important since they can easily be punched below the surface. They are less likely to split the wood if driven in with the longer sides parallel to the grain. Sizes from 12-150 mm (0.5in – 6in)

image049Round or lost head nail: Stronger than oval wire nails, they can easily be punched below the surface of the wood. Sizes from 12-150 mm (0.5-6in)

image050Panel pin: Round lightweight nail used for cabinet-making and for fixing small moldings beads into place.

image052Tack: A short nail with a wide, flat head, the tack is used for fixing carpets to floorboards and for stretching fabric on to wood.

 

image054Cut floor brad: Rectangular, they have an L-shaped head and are nearly always used for nailing floor boards to beams. Sizes from 25- 150 mm (1-6in).

image056Masonry Nail: Made of hardened steel, this nail is used to fix wood to brick, concrete block and most types of masonry.

image058Square twisted nail: Twists into the wood. These comparatively expensive nails offer a more permanent, screw-like grip than plain nails.

image060Annular nail: Useful where very strong joints are required. The sharp ridges round the shank become embedded in the wood to give a tight grip.

image062Cleat head nail: Made of galvanized steel, with a large, flat retaining head, this nail is most suitable for soft materials such as plasterboard and roof felt.

image064Spring-head roofing nail: For fixing corrugated sheeting to timber. The twisted shank and inverted cup head produces a very strong purchase.

image067Corrugated fastener: For reinforcing a weak wood joint or for securing mitered or butt joints in rough framing.

image069Cut clasp nail: Rectangular in section, they are difficult to remove and provide a very strong fixing in wood and pre-drilled masonry. Sizes from 25-150mm (1-6in).

Himage071ardboard nail: These have a diamond-shaped head which is virtually hidden when hammered into hardboard. Sizes from 9-38mm (3/8-1.5 in).

image073Spring: A small nail without a head. They are used mainly to hold glass in window frames before applying putty which covers them up. Sizes from 12-19mm (0.5-0.75in)

image074Upholstery nail: Available in chrome, brass and other metallic finishes, they are used as a secondary fixing with tacks. The dome head gives a decorative finish when nailing chair coverings into place. Various head sizes are available.

image077Staple: U-shaped round wire nails with two points to hold lengths of wire in position. Some staples have insulation

The nails are designated with the length and nomenclature. The round wire nail is the most commonly used nail and their weight is given hereunder:

inches
cm
Typical Wire nails per Kg
1.00
2.540
1927
1.25
3.175
1251
1.50
3.810
694
1.75
4.445
595
2.00
5.080
396
2.25
5.715
352
2.50
6.350
231
2.75
6.985
209
3.00
7.620
154
3.25
8.255
143
3.50
8.890
110
4.00
10.160
66
4.50
11.430
55
5.00
12.700
37
5.50
13.970
33
6.00
15.240
22

Nailing Procedure:
image078While joining two pieces of wood, specially planks or thin members, nails should be driven in inclined direction as shown below.

After driving the nail into the wood, the nail head should be driven by a nail punch and hammer to give a good appearance.

The hammer should be struck fair on the head of nail, any hit at an angle will bend the nail and also likely to cause injury to the carpenter. image080Similarly while pulling out a nail with the help of the claw end or spincer, a piece of waste wood should be kept under the poll end of claw hammer and next to spincer toward the direction of pull. This is to protect spoiling of the job piece and also to assist pulling out nail.

The length of the nail should be such that it reaches very near the other end of the 2nd piece. In case of joining a thin piece like plank to a beam etc. i.e. a big piece, the length of the nail should generally be three times the thickness of plank i.e. the thinner piece

Wood Screws: Mainly there are 3 types of wood screws used in carpentry work. Wood screws are classified by the type of drive, the shape of head.

Different Head Types Different drive Type: Threading on the shank is designed specifically for wood; wood threads have a tapered screw while sheet-metal screws have mainly a parallel thread. Wood type screws are also normally used for securing into wall plugs. Screws for particle board usually have 2 threads on the full length of the shank.
Types and usesimage081
Counter sunk Screws: The head is so designed that the head will be flush with the wood surface. These are the most commonly used screws. These are either slotted head or can also be Philips head. For Philips head the proper screw driver to be used is Philips Screw Driver, which has the bit designed to grip all 4 sides of the slots. Flat head screws fit into tapered recesses (such as the holes in hinges) and will be flush with the surface when properly applied.
Raised head screw: These are counter sunk screws with slightly raised/oval heads. These are also used like counter sunk head screws but are protruding slightly in oval shape, for better appearance.
Round head Screw: The head of the screw is rounded and protruding outside but flat at bottom. These are also available with through slotted head or Philips head. The rounded head is always visible, and is mostly used for fastening thin sheets or wood pieces and are also used where these may have to be un-screwed during service life of the wooden piece for replacement of one of the parts.
The screws are identified by their head, drive, length and shank diameter in gauge no. or in mms. Screws are sized by gauge number and length.
The table gives identification of some of the commonly used screws based on the above.

Shank diameter
Screw size Identification
Inches
mm
1/16
1.6
0
5/64
1.98
1
3/32
2.4
2
7/64
2.8
3,4
1/8
3.2
5
9/64
3.6
6
5/32
4.0
7,8
11/64
4.36
9
3/16
4.75
10
13/64
5.16
11
7/32
5.6
12
1/ 4
6.35
14
17/64
6.75
16
19/64
7.54
18
5/16
7.93
20
3/8
9.53
24

Also, when choosing screws for connecting two pieces of wood, choose a screw that is as long as possible without poking through the back side of the receiving piece of wood. This will help insure a strong connection without defacing the receiving piece.image083
Wood screws are usually made of hardened steel, but are also found in brass and stainless steel. Some may have galvanized coatings to help prevent corrosion. When using wood screws to affix two pieces of hardwood stock, be certain to pre-drill a pilot hole and countersunk. Failure to do so may cause the wood to crack, which will likely cause a big problem that you’ll have to deal with. As the upper part of the shanks of wood screw is unthreaded, clearance holes should be drilled in the top piece of timber, this will allow the timber to be pulled tight onto the underlying surface. If the unthreaded shank is longer than the thickness of the top timber and the screw is larger than size 6 or the underlying timber is a hard wood, the clearance hole should be extended into the top of the underlying timber. Where the underlying timber is softwood and the screw size is less than size 6, a drilled pilot hole is not normally required; using a bradawl to mark the position is adequate. In other cases pilot holes are to be drilled in the receiving wood piece.
When using brass screws, always insert, tighten and remove a steel screw of the same size before fitting the brass screw – brass screws are relatively soft/ weak and having used the steel screw to cut the thread will reduce the risk of damaging the brass screw. The recommended size of pilot and clearance holes are given in table below,

inch
mm
Screw
size
clearance
hole
pilot hole
(softwood)
pilot hole
(hardwood)
clearance
hole
pilot hole
(softwood)
pilot hole
(hardwood)
0
1/16
bradawl
1/32
1.6
bradawl
0.8
1
5/64
bradawl
1/32
2.0
bradawl
0.8
2
3/32
bradawl
3/64
2.4
bradawl
1.2
3
7/64
bradawl
1/16
2.8
bradawl
1.6
4
7/64
bradawl
1/16
2.8
bradawl
1.6
5
1/8
bradawl
5/64
3.2
bradawl
2.0
6
9/64
1/16
5/64
3.6
1.6
2.0
7
5/32
1/16
3/32
4.0
1.6
2.4
8
11/64
5/64
3/32
4.5
2.0
2.4
9
3/16
5/64
7/64
5.0
2.0
2.8


inch
mm
Screw
size
clearance
hole
pilot hole
(softwood)
pilot hole
(hardwood)
clearance
hole
pilot hole
(softwood)
pilot hole
(hardwood)
10
3/16
3/32
7/64
5.0
2.4
2.8
11
13/64
3/32
1/8
5.5
2.4
3.2
12
7/32
7/64
1/8
5.5
2.8
3.2
14
1/4
7/64
9/64
6.5
2.8
3.6
16
17/64
9/64
5/32
7.0
3.6
4.0
18
19/64
9/64
3/16
7.5
3.6
5.0
20
21/64
11/64
13/64
8.5
4.5
5.5
24
3/8
3/16
7/32
9.0
5.0
5.5

Driving a screw
Some do’s and don’ts Do’s
Always use the proper screw driver. For a slotted head, common screw driver be used with right size tip. Over size or under size tipimage084 can damage the screw head and the screw driver also. For Philips head screw driver only be used.image085
Driving a screw is a 2-hand job, and must be driven accordingly. Non- observance can, not only damage the screw but also cause body harm. Screw must be screwed only after pilot holes and clearance holes are made. All joints should be provided minimum 2 screws, less than 2 will allow rotation of joint.
Hinges:
Hinges are used to connect the door, windows, covers etc. to the frames. These are of several designs and types, mainly according to the use they are required to be put to, some of them are described below,
Butt hinges: Butt hinges are probably the most common type of hinge found around the house to hinge two wooden parts. image087They are used on wooden internal and external doors, also on casement windows, various cupboards and other pieces of furniture.
The two halves need to be recessed into and traditionally the two halves are held together by a shaft through the center of the spine – some modern ones use an arrangement of ball bearing and these type are recommended for heavy doors.
Different finishes are available and hinges are made from plain steel, brass, chrome, stainless steel and are available up to 150 mm length.
Security butt hinges: Like ordinary butt hinges, they only suit wooden doors and need to be recessed into the surfaces. image089
If an ordinary butt hinge were used in this position, the hinge pin could be removed and the door released. With security butt hinges, the two halves of the hinge are lock together when the door is closed so removing the hinge pin won’t allow access.

Rising butt hinges: This type of hinges raise door 12mm to 16mm while opening the door to clear image090carpet or uneven floor. It prevents damage caused by scraping.

 

image093Flush hinges: A lightweight hinge which has the advantage over a butt hinge that it fixed directly on to the surface without the need to cut a recess. These are usually used on cupboards.

 

image094Continuous hinges: This type of hinges is used for high traffic doors i.e. high used doors. This type of hinges distribute the weight of the door

Concealed hinges: Used to hinge cupboard doors so that they are not externally visible.image096 Most types require a large hole (typically 35mm dia) in the door for the body to fit into.

image098Tee hinges: Tee hinges are generally used on timber sheds or fencing gates etc. where the long arm is fitted to the door and the narrow part to the door jamb. These are available normally upto 150 mm. They offer little security as the fixing screws are exposed.

Double action hinges: It is used where door panels need to fold in either direction.image100

 

 

Friction hinges: Friction hinges are used on UPVC double glazing windows where no catch for securing the window is required. image101Different manufactures of double glazing use different styles of friction hinge so care need to be used if these are purchased as replacements – i.e. they may not suit you particular windows. Also, manufactured windows will often have the hinge riveted to the frame and casement, this makes removing the old hinges a problem.

image103Parliamentary hinges: This type of hinges are used when the door panel is required to be away from the wall at open position

 

Tower bolt:
Tower bolts are a fitting to lock the door or window from inside. image104These are available in mild steel, black enamel coated, image107brass like (made of mild steel but coated to look like brass), brass, stainless steel and aluminum. These are fixed by means of wood screws.image109 image111They are available commonly up to length of 300 mm. They are available in different styles with or without padlock arrangement. image113The common tower bolts are without padlock arrangement. Some styles are shown below.

 

AL drops: AL drops are stronger than bolts and are used commonly as a securing device for outside of the door.image115 They all have a locking arrangement, though sometimes they are also fixed on the inside of the door. AL drops are available in steel, brass, aluminum and also in stainless steel. Generally, they are manufactured in sizes from 200 mm to 400mm long.

Safety Hasps: Safety hasps are normally fixed in small cabinets, drawers, cupboards, image117fly net or mosquito proof net doors of food storage larders. They are available from 25 mm to 50 mm.

image119Right angles and Tee’s: These are fixed to strengthen the joints in wood work, where the aesthetics is not of consideration, especially in soft wood joinery, as the nail or screw joints tend to become loose. These are also commonly used in joining wood members in trusses of sloping roofs.

Door closers: These normally function on hydraulic principles. image121There are variations in design in the mounting and the action they perform.image123 The door closers are fixed to the surface of door, or on the floor and are known in the style they are fixed.

There are several kinds of fittings and fixtures available,image125 for doors and windows and for Almira’s, cabinets. Several types of knobs, handles, locks, stoppers, etc. It is not possible to describe them all here.
Sandpapers:
The term ‘sandpaper’ is used to cover abrasive grit on flexible backing sheets used to smooth many types of material. True ‘sandpaper’ (i.e. backing paper covered with grains of sand) is no longer available commercially but has been replaced by backing sheet covered with glass, aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, garnet or other specialist grit.
Each type of grit has different characteristics which make each most suitable for specific applications, an understanding of the types of grit is essential so that the right type is chosen for a particular job.
General characteristics:
Grit size: Various sizes of grit are available for all types of grit material, the size is referred to by a number which represents the number of holes per linear inch in a sieve screen – they range from 40 (very coarse) to over 400 (very fine). Good quality sandpaper will have universal sized grit. The size of grit is used to classify the sandpaper by ‘grade’ as follows:

Grit size
grade
40-60
course
80-100
medium course
120-150
medium
180-220
fine
240 upwards
very fine

The individual sheets of sandpaper are normally marked on the reverse with the grit size (i.e. 120) and/or with the grade (i.e. medium).
Backing materials:
Three types of backing materials are commonly available:
Ordinary paper – Although relatively a cheap backing, ordinary paper is an adequate material for most sandpapers. The quality of paper varies depending upon the intended method of use (and price); sandpaper supplied for use with power tools generally has a tougher quality of backing paper than that sold for hand use. Mostly for carpentry work, this type is used
Waterproof paper – Water proof paper is essential where the sandpaper is to be used with a lubricant. The back of this type of paper usually has a darker, glossier appearance.
Cloth – Generally used where a high degree of flexibility is required when using the sandpaper.
Backing adhesives: Adhesives may be water soluble or waterproof. Most common sandpapers use a water-soluble adhesive; this is quite satisfactory, as most sandpaper are not intended for use with a lubricant. Wet-and-dry sandpapers and others designed to be used with a lubricant, use a waterproof adhesive.
Forms: Sandpaper is available in a number of forms, each form being available in a number of grades:
Sheets – normally, about 280 x 230 mm, usually only suitable for hand sanding.
Rolls – available in a number of widths (e.g. 50, 115mm), each roll is of a single grade and normally is sold by linear length. Although it is produced for use with power tools, it can be used for hand sanding.
Sandpapers sold for power tool use are generally more robust than most types sold for hand sanding
Types of grit:
Glass paper: Generally composed of quartz granules on a paper backing, this is an inexpensive, relatively soft abrasive for sanding painted or natural timber, metal, and other materials. It wears relatively quickly and is best suited to provide a rough finish before a really smooth surface is attempted.
Aluminum Oxide: This man-made material is suitable for shaping, sanding and polishing hard metal such as iron and steel, but also effective on timber. Aluminum oxide cuts much faster and lasts longer than glass or garnet. It is available on non-waterproof, cloth or waterproof backings.
Silicon Carbide (wet and dry): Silicon carbide paper, also known as ‘wet and dry’ paper, is suitable for both dry and wet sanding. It is suitable for sanding hardwood and plywood, soft metal like brass and aluminum, and plastic; also used for smoothing glass edges and frosting glass surfaces. It is fast-cutting and almost as hard as diamond, but it is brittle so the coarser grades will wear fast if used on hard metal.
Garnet Paper: This is a natural crushed rock and is an excellent abrasive for general wood sanding, either by hand or with a power tool – it is recognized by its distinctive bright green colour. The natural garnet grit lasts about twice as long as the quartz chips used on glass sandpaper but it is not as long lasting as aluminum Oxide.
Garnet is also available with a cloth backing; in this form, it is used for work requiring more durability and flexibility.
Garnet Paper is a good all round abrasive, but particularly useful for smoothing hardwoods and for fine finishing work.
Using Sandpaper:
Always use the correct type and grade of sandpaper for the job in hand – do not use paper sold for ‘hand sanding’ in a power tool.
Start by using a medium or coarse grade paper. Change the grade of paper you are using as the job progresses.
Let the abrasive grit do the work, do not use undue pressure it will only clog the paper or cause the paper to wear out unnecessarily quickly. When power sanding, very little pressure is necessary, just guiding the tool is normally sufficient.
Use a sanding block when hand sanding.
Move sandpaper along the grain of bare timber, not across.
On a smooth, non-grained surface, move the sandpaper in small circular motions.
Store sandpapers carefully in a cool dry area. Except for papers made using waterproof adhesive and backing material, any dampness may cause the adhesive or backing to fail or weaken and grains will become detached.
If the paper becomes clogged after a short time of use, look at the surface being sanded – if it is timber, the timber may be damp – allow time for it to dry out. Paint which clogs paper may either be too new to sand or old paint applied in thick coats which have not gone off.

Synthetic glues: Mostly synthetic glues or adhesives are used these days. The properties are specified by name factor and printed on the cartoon. Before using the same should be consulted for proper use.

PolyVinyl AcetatePolyVinyl AcetateContact Cement like Fevicol SREpoxy glue likePolyurethane (PU) like Fevicol 1KPUR
(PVA) like Fevicol MR(PVA) High Grade like Fevicol SHFevitite
123456
Applications– low grade– high grade– bonding– waterproof– water-
(craft or(professional/plasticexteriorresistant
hobby glue);industriallaminates;timber;exterior wood
– edge- andglue);– decorative– marinebonding;
face-gluing, bonding structural– edge- and face-gluing, bondingoverlays;wood– laminating and
joints;structuralmaterials;laminating– bonding
– bondingjoints;– someandnonwood
plastic– bondingmodernveneering;materials;
laminatesplasticwater-based– sealing;– develops full
etc;laminates etc;cements are– topcoating;strength only
– can be coloured with– can be coloured withfast drying and give high– casting;in well-fit, tightly
dyes etc.dyes etc.performance;clamped
Availability/ usingready to use;ready to use;ready to– 2 part (resin and hardener); – can be coloured– ready to use; – work can be moistened before
Typical working time5 to 30 min5 to 30 mindry prior to assembly;2 mins to 2 hrs plus10 to 40 mins
20 to 90 min20 to 90 minopen drying times:4 mins to 48 hrs45 mins to 10 hrs
Clamp time #10 to 20 min (water based), 2 to 15 min (solvent based),
1 to 5 min will increase bond strength
Cured working properties– fairly soft and– cures hard; – can be cut with hand tools,– soft and elastic;– hard;– cured
workable;machines well but loads paper when sanded;– can be machined and sanded but will gum up cutting edges and sandpaper;– can be cut with hand tools if warmed;foamout is soft and cuts
– can be cut with hand tools,– can be softened or reactivated– may be softened by solvents (may be affected by solvents in stains and finishes.– machines and sands well; doesn’t dull cutting edges as quickly as urea resin glue;easily with hand tools; – machines and sands well;
machines well butwith heat up to several– resists stains and finishes– compatible with most stains and finishes
loads paper when sanded; – reversible with water for 2 to 6 weeks after curing; – resist stains and finishes.days after application; – not
reversible
with water
after curing;
– resist stains and finishes.
Cured– adequate– greater– initially veryexcellent– good
Propertiesstrength;strength,weak;combination of strength, rigidity,strength,
– low rigidity and creep resistance;rigidity, creep resistance– develops increased strengthcreeprigidity, creep resistance and durability;
and durability
than whitewhenresistance– fills gaps but
PVA.pressed into thin layer;and durability.only with foamed glue
– no rigidity; – little or no creep(which has no structural strength).
Longterm– low to– greater– good to– waterproof;– excellent
Propertiesmoderate resistance to heat,resistance to heat,excellent heatcan be weakened, brokenmoisture,
moisture,moisture,resistance if pressed into thindown by somesolvent and shock
acids andacids and solvents andresistance;
– superior heat
solvents andvery goodlayer;solvents;resistance;
good shockshock– poor to fair– fair to– not
resistance;resistance;moistureadequatecompletely
– will gradually– willresistance ifheatwaterproof.
degrade ifgraduallysubjected toresistance;
exposed todegrade ifprolonged– superior
UV light.exposed to UV light.exposure;shock resistance; – may gradually degrade if exposed to
UV light.

KLEO Stoneware Bathroom Set

SDG Red Teak Wood Decorative Mirror